Scientists from Ural Federal University and the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences are working on a joint project to determine the optimal conditions for 3D printing permanent magnets with hard magnetic compounds of rare earth metals. 

This technology makes it possible to produce permanent magnets of any shape on a small scale, and to create complex permanent magnets and configure magnetic forces. Such permanent magnets could be used to make tiny electric motors and generators that are used in devices such as pacemakers. In addition, this technology minimizes production waste and also has short production cycles.

 Permanent magnets can maintain a magnetic field source for a long period of time and are widely used in various industries and equipment, such as the manufacture of many kinds of electrical appliances such as modern electric motors, household appliances, and computer equipment. Permanent magnets manufactured by traditional methods are difficult to achieve a small size, and usually have two magnetic poles, one in the north and one in the south.

From a technical point of view, making complex small permanent magnets is not an easy task. And 3D printing technology can be used to manufacture permanent magnets with complex shapes. After numerous experiments, Ural scientists have managed to determine the optimal parameters for 3D printing of permanent magnets using selective laser sintering and magnetic powder.

Moreover, 3D printing can also change the internal properties of the magnet during the production stage. For example, changing the chemical composition of the compound, the degree of spatial orientation of the crystals and the crystallographic texture, as well as influencing the coercive force (resistance to demagnetization).

"When manufacturing small permanent magnets, machines are generally used to mill large permanent magnets. About half of the permanent magnets will become industrial waste. 3D printing can avoid this situation and create complex permanent magnets. Magnets, such as a permanent magnet with 5 south poles and 5 north poles, such a configuration is necessary for a pacemaker. Currently, the electric motor rotor of a pacemaker is under a microscope, using a separate permanent magnet Assembled," explained researcher Dmitry Neznakhin.

So far, they have 3D printed permanent magnets that are only 1mm thick, using a base material that is a powder containing samarium, zirconium, iron and titanium.

"We found that adding fusible powders of an alloy of samarium, copper and cobalt when sintering the samples preserved the magnetic characteristics of the main magnetic powder," Neznagin added. "The melting temperature of this alloy is lower than that of the main alloy. change, which is why the final material retains its force and density."




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